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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 150  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 261-271

Pharmacogenetic analyses of variations of measures of cardiovascular risk in Alzheimer's dementia


1 Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
2 Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
3 University of Mogi das Cruzes, Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo, Brazil
4 Department of Biophysics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
5 Department of Morphology & Genetics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Correspondence Address:
Dr Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, Rua Botucatu 740, Vila Clementino, CEP 04023-900, São Paulo
Brazil
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1209_17

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Background & objectives: Neurodegeneration affects blood pressure variations, while renal function and cerebral perfusion are impaired by vascular risk factors. This study was aimed to estimate variations of measures of cardiovascular risk in Alzheimer's dementia by pharmacogenetic analyses of the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and statins. Methods: Consecutive patients were prospectively followed to study variations of creatinine clearance and blood pressure for one year, estimated by correlating the effects of ACE inhibitors with the ACE Alu I/D polymorphism and genotypes or haplotypes of rs1800764 or rs4291, and the effects of statins with LDLR (low-density lipoprotein receptor) genotypes or haplotypes of rs11669576 (exon 8) or rs5930 (exon 10), or genotypes of rs2695121 (liver X receptor β gene). Variations of the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk according to these cardiovascular measures were also explored. Results: All polymorphisms of the 193 patients were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Genetic determinants of cardiovascular effects affected the individual variability of the response to ACE inhibitors and statins. ACE inhibitors, but not statins, reduced blood pressure for all patients. ACE inhibitors protected carriers of alleles that supposedly decrease serum ACE levels (rs1800764-T, rs4291-A, Alu II) regarding creatinine clearance variations (P <0.005), but carriers of Alu DD (P <0.02), rs1800764-C (P <0.05), or rs4291-AT (P <0.04) showed better blood pressure lowering effects. The presence of rs2695121-T (P=0.007) or rs5930-A (P=0.039) was associated with systolic blood pressure lowering, whereas rs5930-AA was protective against decrease in creatinine clearance (P=0.019). Statins lowered creatinine clearance for carriers of rs2695121-CT (P=0.026). Interpretation & conclusions: Pharmacological response of blood pressure and creatinine clearance to ACE inhibitors and statins may be genetically mediated.


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