Kinetics of viral RNA, immunoglobulin-M & G antibodies in Kyasanur forest disease
Pragya D Yadav1, Yogesh K Gurav2, Anita M Shete1, Rajlaxmi Jain1, Dimpal A Nyayanit1, Prachi G Pardeshi1, Rajlakshmi Viswanathan3, Tushar R Chiplunkar4, Pradip Awate5, Triparna P Majumdar1, Rima R Sahay1, Devendra T Mourya6
1 Maximum Containment Laboratory, ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Epidemiology Group, ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
3 Bacteriology Group, ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
4 Rural Hospital, Dodamarg, Sindhudurg, Maharashtra, India
5 State Public Health Epidemiology Department, Maharashtra, India
6 ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Dr Devendra T Mourya
ICMR-National Institute of Virology, 20-A, Dr. Ambedkar Road, Pune 411 001, Maharashtra
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background & objectives: Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is an infectious disease discovered in Karnataka State of India in 1957; since then, the State has been known to be enzootic for KFD. In the last few years, its presence was observed in the adjoining five States of the Western Ghats of India. The present study was conducted to understand the kinetics of viral RNA, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibody in KFD-infected humans for developing a diagnostic algorithm for KFD.
Methods: A prospective follow up study was performed among KFD patients in Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra State, India. A total of 1046 suspected patients were tested, and 72 KFD patients were enrolled and followed for 17 months (January 2016 to May 2017). Serum samples of KFD patients were screened for viral RNA, and IgM and IgG antibodies.
Results: KFD viral positivity was observed from 1st to 18th post-onset day (POD). Positivity of anti-KFD virus (KFDV) IgM antibodies was detected from 4th till 122nd POD and anti-KFDV IgG antibodies detected from 5th till 474th POD. A prediction probability was determined from statistical analysis using the generalized additive model in R-software to support the laboratory findings regarding viral kinetics.
Interpretation & conclusions: This study demonstrated the presence of KFD viral RNA till 18th POD, IgM antibodies till 122nd POD and IgG till the last sample collected. Based on our study an algorithm was recommended for accurate laboratory diagnosis of KFDV infection. A sample collected between 1 and 3 POD can be tested using KFDV real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); between 4 and 24 POD, the combination of real-time RT-PCR and anti-KFDV IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests can be used; between POD 25 and 132, anti-KFDV IgM and IgG ELISA are recommended.