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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 149  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 276-280

Antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in healthy gut flora: A report from north Indian semiurban community


1 Department of Community Medicine, School of Public Health, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Advanced Paediatrics Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Pathology & Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
4 Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Pallab Ray
Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_207_18

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Background & objectives: Rampant use of β-lactam antibiotics in both community and hospitals has transformed the human healthy intestinal gut flora into a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant organisms. This study was conducted to find the faecal presence of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in faecal samples in the community in north India. Methods: In this prospective study, 207 stool samples were collected from apparently healthy individuals residing in a semiurban community in Chandigarh, India, from August to October, 2015. Isolates belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and antibiotic susceptibility was determined using Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute disc diffusion method. Detection of extended spectrum β-lactamases (TEM, SHV, OXA-1, CTXM 1, CTXM 2, CTXM 9 and CTXM 8/25), carbapenemases (IMP, VIM and KPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase was done by multiplex PCR. Results: Of the population studied, 55.5 per cent were females and 60 per cent were illiterate or had only primary education; 43.4 per cent individuals were aged <20 yr. Overall, 70.5 per cent of stool samples had antibiotic-resistant isolates. Maximum resistance was seen for cephalosporins (60.4%) followed by fluoroquinolones (41.5%). The multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates were 2.4 per cent. The most commonly detected genes were TEM, SHV, OXA-1, CTXM-1, CTXM-2, CTXM-9 and CTXM-8/25 β-lactamases. Escherichia coli was the most common resistant isolate, and TEM was the most common gene detected. Interpretation & conclusions: Overall, 70.5 per cent members of Enterobacteriaceae had antibiotic resistance in the community and 2.4 per cent were MDR. Higher resistance rates were observed for most commonly used drugs such as cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. High rate of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in gut of healthy individuals points towards the need for active screening and prevention of dissemination.


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