Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 149  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 119-128

Antimicrobial resistance in the environment: The Indian scenario


Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Neelam Taneja
Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_331_18

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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) continues to pose a significant public health problem in terms of mortality and economic loss. Health authorities of several countries including India have formulated action plans for its containment. In this fight against AMR, it is important to realize the contribution by all the following four spheres: humans, animals, food and environment. This review incorporates all the spheres of One Health concept from the Indian perspective. India has one of the highest rates of resistance to antimicrobial agents used both in humans and food animals. The environment, especially the water bodies, have also reported the presence of resistant organisms or their genes. Specific socio-economic and cultural factors prevalent in India make the containment of resistance more challenging. Injudicious use of antimicrobials and inadequate treatment of waste waters are important drivers of AMR in India. Use of sludge in agriculture, improper discard of livestock animals and aquaculture industry are considered AMR contributors in other countries but Indian data regarding these are lacking. Efforts to combat AMR have been initiated by the Indian health authorities but are still at preliminary stages. Keeping in view the challenges unique to India, future directions are proposed.


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