Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 148  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 100-106

S100 proteins: An emerging cynosure in pregnancy & adverse reproductive outcome

Department of Molecular & Human Genetics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Kiran Singh
Department of Molecular & Human Genetics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_494_18

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S100 proteins are calcium (Ca2+)-binding proteins and these have an important function in progression, manifestation and therapeutic aspects of various inflammatory, metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. Based on their involvement in intracellular or extracellular regulatory effects, S100 proteins are classified into three subgroups: one subgroup is specialized in exerting only intracellular effects, other performs both intracellular and extracellular functions and the third subgroup members only display extracellular regulatory effects. S100 proteins are expressed particularly in vertebrates and have cell-specific expression. Functionally, S100 proteins act through their surface receptors and regulate cell functions in autocrine or paracrine mode. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs) and toll-like receptor 4 are the main surface receptors. S100 proteins participate in the regulation of cellular differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation along with Ca2+ homeostasis, energy metabolism and cellular migration, and perform the respective functions through their interaction with transcription factors, nucleic acids, enzymes, receptors, cytoskeleton system, etc. Currently, their role in adverse pregnancy outcomes and compromised reproductive health is being explored. These proteins are present in amniotic fluid, endometrium tissue and foetal brain; therefore, it is quite likely that alterations in the expression levels of S100 family members will be affecting the particular function they are involved in and ultimately affecting the pregnancy in adverse manner. The current review discusses about an association of S100 proteins in pregnancy disorders such as endometriosis, intrauterine growth retardation and miscarriage.

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