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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 148  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 373-384

Clinical impact & pathogenic mechanisms of human parvovirus B19: A multiorgan disease inflictor incognito


1 Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India
2 Guru Nanak Eye Centre, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Janak Kishore
Division of Virology, Department of Microbiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226 014, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_533_18

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Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) causes myriads of clinical diseases; however, owing to lack of awareness and undetermined clinical impact, it has failed to become a virus pathogen of global concern. Cryptically, B19V causes significant morbidity and mortality. Half of the world population and 60 per cent of Indians are known to be serologically naive and are at risk of acquiring B19V infections. Cumulatively, our data showed 21.3 per cent B19V-infected patients with juvenile chronic arthropathy, recurrent abortions, multi-transfused thalassaemia and leukaemia. In addition, B19V-infected cases that ended fatally included patients with pure red cell aplasia, fulminant hepatitis and haemophagocytic syndrome. Novel clinical associations of B19V observed were amegakaryocytic thrombocytopaenia, myositis and non-occlusive ischaemic gangrene of bowel. B19V possesses multiple receptors which are distributed widely in human tissues. Vascular endothelial cell infection by B19V causes endothelialitis and vasculitic injuries besides antibody-dependent enhancement which empowered B19V to cause multiorgan diseases. Owing to lack of suitable animal model for B19V, true causal role remains to be determined, but numerous reports on B19V infections substantiate a causal role in multiorgan diseases. Hence, B19V infections need to be recognized, investigated and treated besides making efforts on vaccine developments.


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