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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 148  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 77-89

A systematic review on association between smokeless tobacco & cardiovascular diseases


1 Division of Cytopathology, ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention & Research, Noida, India
2 Division of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention & Research, Noida, India
3 School of Preventive Oncology, Patna, India
4 WHO FCTC Global Knowledge Hub for Smokeless Tobacco, ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention & Research, Noida, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Ruchika Gupta
Division of Cytopathology, ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention & Research, I-7, Sector-39, Noida 201 301, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2020_17

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Background & objectives: The association of smokeless tobacco (SLT) with cardiovascular diseases has remained controversial due to conflicting reports from various countries. Earlier meta-analyses have shown significantly higher risk of fatal myocardial infarction and stroke in SLT users. However, the risk of hypertension (HTN) with SLT products has not been reviewed earlier. This systematic review was undertaken to summarize the evidence available from global literature on the association of SLT with cardiovascular outcomes – heart disease, stroke and HTN. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and Google Scholar since their inception till October 2017 using pre-decided search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data were extracted from studies included independently by two authors and reviewed. Results: The review included 50 studies - 23 on heart disease, 14 on stroke and 14 on HTN. Majority of the studies evaluating heart disease or stroke were conducted in the European Region and most of these did not find a significant association between SLT use and either of these outcomes. On the other hand, 70 per cent of the studies on HTN were reported from South-East Asian Region and about half of the studies found a higher risk of HTN in SLT users. Interpretation & conclusions: Current available evidence is insufficient to conclusively support the association of cardiovascular diseases with SLT use due to variability in results and methodological constraints in most of the studies. Region and product-specific well-designed studies are required to provide this evidence to the policymakers. However, advice on cessation of SLT products should be offered to patients presenting with cardiovascular diseases.


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