Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 146  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 1-7

Spectrum of hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state in neurology practice

Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr U K Misra
Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareli Road, Lucknow 226 014, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_57_15

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Background & objectives: Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) is a medical emergency, but there is a paucity of studies reporting the spectrum of neurological manifestations of HHS. We, therefore, report the neurological spectrum, triggering factors and outcome of HHS in general neurology practice. Methods: The records of the patients with HHS were extracted from computerized hospital information system and those managed currently were prospectively included. The demographic, clinical manifestations, duration of diabetes and precipitating events such as infection, stress and stroke were noted. Patients with HHS were categorized into seizure, movement disorder and encephalopathy groups. Their electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and outcome were noted. Results: There were 17 patients with HHS (age range 40 and 75 yr) and seven were females. Seven patients were diabetic for five years, one for four years, one for one year and four were diagnosed after the occurrence of HHS. Four patients had epilepsia partialis continua persisting for 72-360 h, one patient had focal seizures and his MRI revealed T2 hyperintensity in frontal region in one patient and cerebellar vermian hyperintensity in another. All the five patients improved, but two had neurological deficits on discharge. Nine patients had encephalopathy which was precipitated by stroke in six patients, urinary infections in two and meningitis in one. Three females had hemichorea-hemiballismus syndrome, which was triggered by infections. Abnormal movements lasted 5-10 days and responded to correction of hyperosmolarity. Nine out of 17 patients improved completely whereas the remaining eight had partial recovery, these patients had stroke, ventilator-related complications or meningoencephalitis. Interpretation & conclusions: The most common presentation of HHS was encephalopathy (9) followed by seizure (5) and hemichorea-hemiballismus syndrome (3) which responded to the correction of hyperosmolar state.

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