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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 145  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 777-785

Comparative analysis of inflammatory gene expression levels in metabolic syndrome & coronary artery disease


1 Mary & Garry Weston Functional Genomics Unit, Bengaluru, India
2 Chairman, Thrombosis Research Institute, Bengaluru, Narayana Hrudayalaya, Bengaluru, India; President, Thrombosis Research Institute, London, UK

Correspondence Address:
Jayashree Shanker
Mary & Garry Weston Functional Genomics Unit, Thrombosis Research Institute, Narayana Hrudayalaya 258/A, Bommasandra Industrial Area, Anekal Taluk, Bengaluru 560 099, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1678_14

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Background & objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the likelihood of developing coronary artery disease (CAD), and inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of both these conditions. The present work was conducted to examine the relative expression of 18 key inflammatory genes associated with MetS and incident CAD in a representative group of patients. Methods: A total of 178 male patients, including 57 with CAD and 121 without CAD, were enrolled in the study. The participants without CAD were characterized for the presence of MetS using modified criteria specific for Asian Indians, which included a lower cut-off for waist circumference (≥90 cm for men). The expression of 18 inflammatory genes was evaluated in peripheral whole blood by quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Results: Of the 121 participants without CAD, 53 (43.8%) had three or more risk factors (MetS group), 50 (41.3%) had one or two risk factors (non-MetS group), while 18 (14.8%) did not have any risk factors (control group). High nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression levels and low interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were observed in MetS patients. Linear association was seen between NF-κB and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression and with increase in MetS components. Comparison of gene expression pattern between CAD and MetS revealed significantly higher expression of leukotriene genes - arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5), arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (ALOX5 AP), leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) and leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S), and lower expression of NF-κB, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) genes in CAD. There was linear increase in expression of LTA4H, LTC4S, IL-8 and VEGFA genes across the four groups, namely from controls, non-MetS, MetS and CAD. Interpretation & conclusions: A distinct gene expression pattern was seen in MetS and CAD implying a well-orchestrated inflammatory and immune activity. Specifically, NF-κB might be playing an active role in MetS, allowing further expansion of the inflammatory process with resolution of inflammation in full-blown CAD, wherein other gene players such as leukotrienes may dominate.


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