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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 145  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 513-520

Ocular distribution of antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase & its alteration in cataractous lens & diabetic retina


1 RS Mehta Jain Department of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, KBIRVO Block, Vision Research Foundation, Chennai, India
2 Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India
3 Centre for Bioinformatics, KBIRVO Block, Vision Research Foundation, Chennai, India
4 Uveitis Services, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, India

Correspondence Address:
Narayanasamy Angayarkanni
RS Mehta Jain Department of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, KBIRVO Block, Vision Research Foundation, 41, College Road, Chennai 600 006, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1284_14

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Background & objectives: The enzyme paraoxonase (PON), an antioxidant enzyme that has both arylesterase and thiolactonase activity, is well studied in cardiovascular diseases. Although a few studies have shown altered PON activity in ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, but the tissue-wise expression of PON in its three gene forms has not been studied. This study was conducted to see the ocular distribution of PON for any altered expression in ocular pathologies such as in cataract and diabetes mellitus. Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the ocular tissues was done for localizing all three forms of the PON in the human donor eyeballs. The PON arylesterase (PON-AREase) and thiolactonase (PON-HCTLase) activities were determined by spectrophotometry in kinetic mode, and the mRNA expression of the PON genes (PON1-3) was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: IHC showed the presence of both PON1 and 2 in all the ocular tissues and PON3 was seen only in retina. The mRNA expression analysis showed that PON2 and PON3 were present in all the tissues, whereas PON1 was seen only in ciliary and retina. Both the PON-AREase and PON-HCTLase activities were detected in all ocular tissues and was in the order of lens>retina>choroid>ciliary body>iris. The expression and activity were studied in cataractous lens and in diabetic retina of the donor eyes. A significant decrease in PON-AREase activity was seen in cataractous lens (P<0.05) but not in diabetic retina, and there was an increase in PON- HCTLase activity (P<0.05) only in diabetic retina. Bioinformatic studies and in vitro experiments indicated that advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as carboxymethyl -lysine might decrease the PON- AREase activity of the PON. Interpretation & conclusions: Distribution of PON enzyme and its activity in ocular tissues is reported here. The study revealed maximal PON activity in lens and retina, which are prone to higher oxidative stress. Differential activities of PON were observed in the lens and retinal tissues from cataractous and diabetic patients, respectively.


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