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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 145  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 448-463

Index-TB guidelines: Guidelines on extrapulmonary tuberculosis for India

1 Department of Internal Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group, Liverpool, UK
3 Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, India
4 Department of Medicine, Sri Venkateshwara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, India
5 National Institute of TB & Respiratory Diseases, New Delhi, India
6 Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics-India & South East Asia, New Delhi, India
7 National Tuberculosis Institute, Bengaluru, India
8 South Asian Cochrane Network & Centre, Vellore, India

Correspondence Address:
Surendra K Sharma
Department of Internal Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1950_16

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Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is frequently a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a common opportunistic infection in people living with HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised states such as diabetes mellitus and malnutrition. There is a paucity of data from clinical trials in EPTB and most of the information regarding diagnosis and management is extrapolated from pulmonary TB. Further, there are no formal national or international guidelines on EPTB. To address these concerns, Indian EPTB guidelines were developed under the auspices of Central TB Division and Directorate of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The objective was to provide guidance on uniform, evidence-informed practices for suspecting, diagnosing and managing EPTB at all levels of healthcare delivery. The guidelines describe agreed principles relevant to 10 key areas of EPTB which are complementary to the existing country standards of TB care and technical operational guidelines for pulmonary TB. These guidelines provide recommendations on three priority areas for EPTB: (i) use of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis, (ii) use of adjunct corticosteroids in treatment, and (iii) duration of treatment. The guidelines were developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria, which were evidence based, and due consideration was given to various healthcare settings across India. Further, for those forms of EPTB in which evidence regarding best practice was lacking, clinical practice points were developed by consensus on accumulated knowledge and experience of specialists who participated in the working groups. This would also reflect the needs of healthcare providers and develop a platform for future research.

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