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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 144  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 440-446

Antibiotic resistance & pathogen profile in ventilator-associated pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital in India


Department of Microbiology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati, India

Correspondence Address:
Abhijit Chaudhury
Department of Microbiology, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati 517 507, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.198679

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Background & objectives: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is an important hospital-acquired infection with substantial mortality. Only a few studies are available from India addressing the microbiological aspects of VAP, which have been done with small study populations. This study was carried out in the intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care hospital to assess the profile of pathogens and to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance. Methods: This was a retrospective study of clinically suspected cases of VAP. Over a three year period, a total of 247 cases in 2011, 297 in 2012 and 303 in 2013 admitted in ICUs on mechanical ventilation with clinical evidence of VAP were included in our study. The endotracheal aspirate samples from these suspected cases were subjected to quantitative culture technique, and colony count of ≥10[5] colony forming units/ml was considered significant. Antimicrobial susceptibility test for the isolates was done. Results: VAP rates of 44.1, 43.8 and 26.3 were seen in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. In all the three years, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli were the predominant organisms, followed by Pseudomonas spp. and Klebsiella spp. Staphylococcus aureus exhibited a downwards trend in prevalence from 50.0 per cent in 2011 to 34.9 per cent in 2013. An increase in vancomycin-resistant enterococci was seen from 4.3 per cent in 2012 to 8.3 per cent in 2013, while methicillin resistance amongst the S. aureus crossed the 50 per cent mark in 2013. An increasing trend in resistance was shown by Pseudomonas spp. for piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ), amikacin and imipenem (IPM). For the non-fermenters, resistance frequency remained very high except for IPM (33.1%) and polymyxin-B (2.4%). Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show VAP as an important problem in the ICU setting. The incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens was on the rise. The resistance pattern of these pathogens can help an institution to formulate effective antimicrobial policy. To have a comprehensive pan-India picture, multicentric studies are needed.


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