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STUDENT IJMR
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 144  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 281-287

Effect of hypertension at presentation on prognosis in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy presenting with normal renal angiogram


1 GSL Medical College & Hospital, Rajahmundry, India
2 Department of Cardiology, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, India
3 Department of Pharmacolgy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, India
4 Department of Physiology, Sri Krishna Medical College, Muzzafarpur, India

Correspondence Address:
Goru Bhawani
Department of Pharmacology, Narayana Medical College, Nellore 524 003, Andhra Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.195045

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Background & objectives: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a progressive disease of heart with systolic and diastolic dysfunction carrying a poor long-term prognosis. The prognostic index and predictors of mortality are considered to be useful in guiding the treatment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of hypertension at presentation on prognosis in patients with DCM presenting with normal renal and coronary angiogram. Methods: An observational, analytical, non-interventional and a combination of retrospective and prospective study was conducted in patients between 15 and 75 yr of age with DCM having on and off symptoms while receiving treatment in a cardiology outpatient department for more than a year. Sixty patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were assessed by echocardiography along with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class prospectively and at baseline retrospectively. Patients were grouped into two categories: DCM with hypertension at presentation (HTNAP, Category 1) and DCM without hypertension at presentation (NHTNAP, Category 2). The primary end-points were the number and dose of parenteral drugs at hospitalization, duration of hospital stay and change in the left ventricular (LV) systolic function expressed as LV ejection fraction, and the secondary end-points included overall mortality, change in LV and right ventricular systolic and diastolic functions and change in the NYHA functional class between baseline and three month follow up in patients. Results: Thirty five and 25 patients presented with HTNAP and NHTNAP, respectively (total 60). The overall mortality was 10 per cent (6/60). The number of hospitalizations was less in HTNAP category and of days of hospital stay was 6.3 in HTNAP and 9.8 in NHTNAP, the difference being significant (P < 0.001). The HTNAP category required less parenteral diuretics and inotropes compared with the NHTNAP category. The echocardiographic parameters showed better improvements in the HTNAP group as compared to the NHTNAP group. Overall, the patients in the <35 yr of age showed the best prognosis (P < 0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Normal or high blood pressure response at acute presentation of DCM leads to better prognosis which may be due to an intact renovascular and an active sympathetic system and can depict the stage of DCM.


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