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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 143  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 712-721

Changing clinical scenario in Chandipura virus infection


National Institute of Virology (ICMR), Microbial Containment Complex, Pune, India

Correspondence Address:
A B Sudeep
National Institute of Virology (ICMR), Microbial Containment Complex, Sus Road, Pashan, Pune 411 102, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.191929

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Chandipura virus (CHPV) (Vesiculovirus: Rhabdoviridae) garnered global attention as an emerging neurotropic pathogen inflicting high mortality in children within 24 h of commencement of symptoms. The 2003-2004 outbreaks in Central India witnessed case fatality rates ranging from 56-75 per cent in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat with typical encephalitic symptoms. Due to the acute sickness and rapid deterioration, the precise mechanism of action of the virus is still unknown. Recent studies have shown increased expression of CHPV phosphoprotein upto 6 h post infection (PI) demonstrating CHPV replication in neuronal cells and the rapid destruction of the cells by apoptosis shed light on the probable mechanism of rapid death in children. Phlebotomine sandflies are implicated as vectors due to their predominance in endemic areas, repeated virus isolations and their ability to transmit the virus by transovarial and venereal routes. Significant contributions have been made in the development of diagnostics and prophylactics, vaccines and antivirals. Two candidate vaccines, viz. a recombinant vaccine and a killed vaccine and siRNAs targeting P and M proteins have been developed and are awaiting clinical trials. Rhabdomyosarcoma and Phlebotomus papatasi cell lines as well as embryonated chicken eggs have been found useful in virus isolation and propagation. Despite these advancements, CHPV has been a major concern in Central India and warrants immediate attention from virologists, neurologists, paediatricians and the government for containing the virus.


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