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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 143  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 197-204

Clinical & radiological evaluation of atherosclerotic changes in carotid & coronary arteries in asymptomatic & clinically symptomatic individuals as a tool for pre-symptomatic diagnosis of cardiovascular disease


1 Department of Radiology, Narayana Health, Narayana Hrudayalaya & Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bengaluru, India
2 Department of Cardiology, Narayana Health, Narayana Hrudayalaya & Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bengaluru, India
3 Department of Medicine, Narayana Health, Narayana Hrudayalaya & Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bengaluru, India

Correspondence Address:
Venkatraman Bhat
309, Greenwoods Apt, Royal Gardenia, Bommasandra, Bengaluru 560 099, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.180207

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Background & objectives: An increase in prevalence of atherosclerosis has been noted worldwide with reports of higher incidence of atherosclerotic vascular changes in Asian Indians. There is a need to measure vascular atherosclerotic changes and provide objective parameter to predict cardiac and cerebrovascular adverse events. Atherosclerotic changes in carotids and coronaries are generally accepted as an association. We attempted in this study to relate intimal-luminal changes in carotid arteries to luminal changes in coronary arteries. Our study presents results of high resolution ultra sonographic (HRUS) evaluation of intimal-medial-thickness (IMT) in carotid with luminal changes in coronaries on multidetector-CT (MDCT) in clinically asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Methods: In this prospective study, HRUS examination of the carotid bifurcation was performed in 151 individuals to measure IMT in asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. Assessments of coronary arteries of the same group of patients were evaluated by MDCT within a week interval. IMT changes were associated with age, sex, predisposing factors, calcium burden of coronaries and structural atherosclerotic changes in coronary arteries. Results: A linear association of IMT was observed with increasing age. IMT of 0.5-0.69 mm was noted in 50 per cent of patients between 51-56 yr with higher number of symptomatic patients in this group. Linear increases in coronary vascular changes were noted with increasing IMT thickness. Changes were more prevalent in diabetic, hypertensive, treadmill test (TMT) positive and clinically symptomatic patients. Interpretation & conclusions: Age-related progression of atherosclerosis was evident in internal carotid arteries. Significant association was observed in the IMT thickness of right common carotid (RCC) and coronary disease in symptomatic group; whereas IMT of left common carotid and internal carotid arteries did not show any association. RCC IMT between 0.5-0.7mm showed maximal association with significant symptomatic narrowing of coronary arteries. Patients with IMT beyond 0.7mm had no association with symptoms.


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