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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 142  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 12-22

Malaria transmission in Tripura: Disease distribution & determinants


1 National Institute of Malaria Research (Field Station) (ICMR), Guwahati, India
2 National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), New Delhi, India
3 Directorate of Family Welfare & Preventive Medicine, Government of Tripura, Agartala, India

Correspondence Address:
Vas Dev
National Institute of Malaria Research (Field Station) (ICMR), Guwahati 781 022, Assam
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.176597

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Background & objectives: Malaria is a major public health problem in Tripura and focal disease outbreaks are of frequent occurrence. The s0 tate is co-endemic for both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax and transmission is perennial and persistent. The present study was aimed to review data on disease distribution to prioritize high-risk districts, and to study seasonal prevalence of disease vectors and their bionomical characteristics to help formulate vector species-specific interventions for malaria control. Methods: Data on malaria morbidity in the State were reviewed retrospectively (2008-2012) for understanding disease distribution and transmission dynamics. Cross-sectional mass blood surveys were conducted in malaria endemic villages of South Tripura district to ascertain the prevalence of malaria and proportions of parasite species. Mosquito collections were made in human dwellings of malaria endemic villages aiming at vector incrimination and to study relative abundance, resting and feeding preferences, and their present susceptibility status to DDT. Results: The study showed that malaria was widely prevalent and P. falciparum was the predominant infection (>90%), the remaining were P. vivax cases. The disease distribution, however, was uneven with large concentration of cases in districts of South Tripura and Dhalai coinciding with vast forest cover and tribal populations. Both Anopheles minimus s.s. and An. baimaii were recorded to be prevalent and observed to be highly anthropophagic and susceptible to DDT. Of these, An. minimus was incriminated (sporozoite infection rate 4.92%), and its bionomical characteristics revealed this species to be largely indoor resting and endophagic. Interpretation & conclusions: For effective control of malaria in the s0 tate, it is recommended that diseases surveillance should be robust, and vector control interventions including DDT spray coverage, mass distribution of insecticide-treated nets/ long-lasting insecticidal nets should be intensified prioritizing population groups most at risk to avert impending disease outbreaks and spread of drug-resistant malaria.


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