|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 383-390
The need for better evidence to evaluate the health & economic benefits of India's Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana
Arindam Nandi1, E Phoebe Holtzman2, Anup Malani2, Ramanan Laxminarayan1
1 The Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, Washington DC, USA; The Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi, India
2 The University of Chicago Law School, Chicago IL, USA
|Date of Submission||26-Feb-2014|
|Date of Web Publication||10-Nov-2015|
The Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy 1400 Eye St NW, Ste 500 Washington DC, 20005
The Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, Washington DC, USA; The Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi, India
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
In this review the existing evidence on the impact of Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) is discussed in the context of international literature available on health insurance. We describe potential pathways through which health insurance can affect health and economic outcomes, discuss evidence from other developing countries, and identify potential biases and inconsistencies in existing studies on RSBY impact. Given the relatively recent introduction of RSBY, lack of quality, verifiable data on utilization patterns, and the absence of reliable evaluation studies, there is a need to exercise caution while assessing the merits of the programme. Considering the enormous potential and cost of the programme, we emphasize the need for a rigorous impact evaluation of RSBY. It will not only help capture the real impact of the scheme, but may also be able to estimate the extent of systemic inefficiencies at the level of the consumer.
Keywords: Financial risk protection - impact evaluation - RSBY - social health insurance
|How to cite this article:|
Nandi A, Holtzman E P, Malani A, Laxminarayan R. The need for better evidence to evaluate the health & economic benefits of India's Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana. Indian J Med Res 2015;142:383-90
|How to cite this URL:|
Nandi A, Holtzman E P, Malani A, Laxminarayan R. The need for better evidence to evaluate the health & economic benefits of India's Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana. Indian J Med Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Dec 9];142:383-90. Available from: http://www.ijmr.org.in/text.asp?2015/142/4/383/169194
India's phenomenal economic growth during recent decades has yet to be matched by commensurate improvements in health care access and health. India's infant mortality rate of 41 per 1,000 live births and maternal mortality rate of 190 per 100,000 live births are still among the world's highest  , and widespread inequality in health outcomes exists across income groups  . Poor health outcomes and inequality are exacerbated by high rates of out-of-pocket (OOP) medical expenditure. Over 75 per cent of health care costs are financed OOP in India, a higher rate than in many developing countries  , and medical expenses push as many as 63.2 million Indians into poverty every year ,,, .
With a rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD) in India, OOP medical expenditure associated with chronic and hospital care will continue to increase. In 2008, 5.2 million Indians died of non-communicable diseases, accounting for 53 per cent of all deaths  . The number of potentially productive years of life lost due to cardiovascular diseases for the 35-64 yr age group in India is predicted to be 17.9 million by 2030  . The median 15-month OOP expenditure for treating cardiovascular diseases in 2011 was
` 145,850 (assuming 1$= ` 50)  - an enormous burden for most Indian households - and during 2012-2030, the economic cost of cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, diabetes, and mental health in India is estimated to be ` 279 trillion (assuming 1$= ` 45) in 2010.
Historically, India has addressed these challenges through targeted supply-side health care delivery mechanisms. However, in 2008, the Indian government launched the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), an inpatient health insurance scheme for the poor. With a cumulative enrolment of more than 37 million poor families, and an annual budget of ` 10.97 billion (US$ 182.8 million, assuming 1$ = ` 60) in 2012-2013, RSBY is among the world's largest hospital insurance schemes  .
Although RSBY is relatively recent, there have been several studies on its impact on health care utilization and financial outcomes ,,,,,,,, . Considering the non-randomized nature of RSBY rollout across the Indian districts, all these studies are based on observational data, which has led to a debate among researchers on methodological challenges in understanding the true impact of RSBY ,,, .
In this paper, we review the existing evidence on RSBY's impact in the context of the international literature on health insurance. We describe potential pathways through which health insurance can affect health and economic outcomes, discuss evidence from methodologically strong (e.g., randomized) studies from other developing countries, and point out the potential biases and inconsistencies in existing studies on RSBY impact.
An overview of India's health policy
Until the National Health Policy (2002), health policy in India was focused on individual diseases or conditions and lacked a unifying framework. This policy and its successor, the National Rural Health Mission (2005), aim to streamline public health care by integrating existing stand-alone policies, decentralizing service delivery (e.g. through community health workers), and focusing more on States that lag on health indicators  . The report by the High-Level Expert Group (HLEG) of the Planning Commission's  on universal health coverage  advocates the integration of individual policies into a National Health Package, emphasizing the need for more supply-side resources. The report also encourages provision of private care under contract from the government in locales where public health care delivery is inadequate. In 2008, RSBY, a large-scale national hospital insurance scheme for the poor, was launched.
At a nominal out-of-pocket enrolment fee of ` 30 per year (US$1 = ` 65, approximately in 2015), officially poor (below the national poverty line, or BPL) families can cover up to five members for more than 700 medical treatments and procedures at government-set prices under RSBY. The scheme only covers inpatient health care up to a maximum of ` 30,000 per year per family but requires no deductible or copay (copayment). However, additional near-poor groups such as domestic, construction, and beedi industry workers, rickshaw pullers, and taxi drivers have been recently brought under the purview of RSBY, and the scheme is being pilot-tested for outpatient coverage , . Health care services are provided nationwide by government-contracted hospitals, both public and private, and beneficiaries use a RSBY biometric identity card, without the need for cash transactions or insurance claims.
Coverage and payouts under RSBY are provided by private and State-run health insurance companies, while the government pays a significant proportion of the insurance premiums. The premiums are based on negotiated contracts between the State government and insurance companies and vary by district. After conducting procedures, health care providers are directly reimbursed by the district level insurer. The total cost of the programme is divided between the Central and State governments, with the centre bearing 75 per cent of the cost. (For Jammy and Kashmir and the northeastern States, the contribution of the Central government is 90 per cent). RSBY was introduced, and implemented until mid-2015, by the Ministry of Labour, Government of India. Subsequently, it was transferred to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare  .
Potential benefits of RSBY and challenges in evaluation
While the actual benefits of RSBY are not yet known, literature available on health insurance in developing countries has indicated some potential benefits. Most studies on the impact of health insurance look at health (either process measures such as utilization or direct health measurements) or financial outcomes. There is some evidence that insurance improves objective health  , but because health is difficult to measure without a large sample size and repeated surveys to detect effects that emerge over time, the evidence is not strong. The extensive literature on the impact of insurance on utilization is not conclusive. Studies from other countries have found that insurance increases overall health care consumption ,, , though the results are not uniformly positive  .
Prior studies have examined financial outcomes related to insurance provision. While some studies have reported that insurance lowers OOP expenditure ,, , others have found the opposite effect and that insurance induces health care utilization beyond coverage limits , . Also, growing evidence indicates that individuals respond to health shocks by selling assets, borrowing money, and using savings ,,,,, , but there is little evidence that insurance mitigates these behaviours in developing countries  . Finally, health shocks affect non medical consumption ,,, and may induce poverty ,, , but it is unclear how insurance addresses these problems. Increased medical expenditures may not imply reduced non medical expenditures if individuals have access to savings, loans, or informal insurance. Wagstaff and Pradhan  did not find any effect of insurance on the variability of non medical consumption in Vietnam; although in a different context, Finkelstein and McKnight  found that insurance could have an independent negative effect on the welfare of risk-averse individuals in the United States.
A large number of studies use observational data to study the effectiveness of health insurance programmes. Such analysis may have limitations. If enrolment in health insurance is voluntary or if the scheme targets a particular population subgroup, beneficiaries of programme may be systematically different from non-beneficiaries. Comparing the outcomes of these two groups will lead to biased estimates of the impact of health insurance ,,, .
There are various econometric tools that can mitigate some of the biases of observational studies, such as instrumental variables, natural experiments , , regression discontinuity analysis, or matching methods ,,- . Difference-in-difference methods may also eliminate the time-invariant systematic differences in unobservable characteristics between the beneficiary and non-beneficiary groups , . However, individuals may choose to insure themselves based on changes in their health outcomes or wealth status over time (instead of initial levels). In such a case, even this sophisticated difference-in-difference approach may not entirely eliminate selection bias or account for unobservable, time-varying factors  .
Another way of addressing selection bias and estimating the causal impact of policy interventions may be to employ random assignment to programme participation. Five large-scale health insurance studies across the world have employed random assignment until now - the RAND health insurance experiments in the United States  and China  , the Seguro Popular health insurance experiment in Mexico , , the Oregon Medicaid lottery study , , and a voluntary health insurance study in Nicaragua  . Two important but smaller experimental studies in other countries have recently been completed, though all results have not been released. A group in the Philippines is studying the effect of insurance provided through microfinance companies  . Levine and colleagues studied the SKY Insurance Plan in Cambodia  .
Although randomization is accepted as a useful method for estimating causal inference, it is not free from criticism. Randomized trials are often conducted in localized small-scale settings. Thus, while the selection of study participants may be randomized, the first stage selection of study sites themselves may not be random. This leads to the concerns about the external validity or generizability of the findings of randomized studies , . In addition, randomized studies may suffer from performance biases such as Hawthorne and John Henry effects, attrition bias that may result in a non random follow up sample, assesment and reporting biases, and lack of statistical power of the sample, all of which may result in inacruate estimates  . Finally, there may be some ethical concerns about withholding the intervention from the control group in a randomized study , , particularly for high-value health insurance coverage which may mean a difference between life and death for the poor. The ethical dilemma is generally tackled by delaying the intervention implementation in the control group until the completion of the study.
Evaluation of RSBY
Although existing RSBY evaluation studies are based solely on observational data, yet RSBY is supposed to be both means-tested, with eligibility initially restricted to BPL populations and recently expanded to include some other socio-economically marginalized groups, and voluntary, with enrolment rates that vary depending on socio-economic and institutional factors or regional bottlenecks , . RSBY is designed to follow targeted implementation and not a randomized framework. While this is highly desirable from a societal perspective, it poses a challenge for evaluating the impact of the scheme. Participation in RSBY will suffer from some level of selection or programme placement bias. Therefore, claiming the success or failure of the programme in improving health and economic outcomes on the basis of observational estimates is risky.
Most studies of RSBY compare outcomes before and after receipt of insurance ,,, . However, secular trends affecting individual health or wealth can confound causal inferences in these cases  . For instance, some areas may be more likely to adopt insurance when they anticipate rapid growth for other reasons or may adopt insurance when the incomes of the poor are expected to stagnate. Other studies of RSBY compare the insured to the non-insured in cross-sectional studies  , yet this design suffers from selection bias, as these two groups may be inherently different. One randomized controlled trial involved RSBY, but it evaluated the effect of an information campaign on enrollment and utilization rather than the effect of the scheme itself  .
A study  argues that RSBY and other health insurance schemes may have increased OOP expenditure for the poor in the State of Tamil Nadu. On this basis, the authors pronounce RSBY a failure and call for a replacement health financing mechanism. Another study  raise some methodological concerns about this above study, which are further contested by the original authors  . Other researchers  also question the validity of the original study, and propose analytical refinements. Findings from two cross-sectional studies of RSBY in Gujarat , showed no significant difference between the OOP expenditure of insured and non-insured groups. Further, the authors found that almost 60 per cent of RSBY beneficiaries had to make a median OOP payment of ` 4000 ($80) in 2011 for hospitalizations, primarily related to drug purchases. Another study  examined a StateState health insurance scheme similar to RSBY, called Rajiv Aarogyasri, in Andhra Pradesh. Using both difference-in-difference methods and matching, it was found that the scheme significantly reduced OOP medical expenditure, more so for inpatient cases. Finally, Rao et al used similar difference-in-difference method to evaluate the Rajiv Aarogyasri scheme in Andhra Pradesh and RSBY in Maharashtra. The authors found that after the implementation of these health insurance schemes, hospitalization rates increased, along with OOP expenditure and borrowings related to inpatient care. The benefits of the insurance scheme was greater in Andhra Pradesh. However, these studies also used observational data and might suffer from methodological problems.
In any case, the implications of higher OOP spending among insurance beneficiaries are uncertain. Just as a government subsidy for purchase of a house might increase private expenditures on housecleaning supplies, a public hospital insurance programme may increase private expenditures on postoperative drugs. Unless there is a serious concern with moral hazard or irrational decision-making caused by a government programme, the increase in spending on complementary products may be evidence of efficacy, not failure, of the programme. Moreover, the proper remedy for higher OOP spending under RSBY might be to expand coverage to include medications or physician services rather than scrap the programme altogether.
Two health insurance evaluation studies in India have followed a randomized design. A cluster-randomized community-based health insurance (CBHI) study in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh by the Microinsurance Academy is currently in progress , . Preliminary findings from this study show the dynamics of enrolment into the CBHI, particularly in the presence of RSBY in these States  . Another new study has been recently launched in Karnataka. Using a randomized design, the study aims to evaluate the impact of RSBY on the health and financial outcomes of the above-poverty-line population  .
There are some additional concerns about RSBY that are not directly related to the impact of health insurance, but are very important for the overall effectiveness of the programme. First, there is a lack of administrative data on various aspects of the scheme, including time trend data on enrolment rates, rates of attrition and re-enrolment, and uptake and benefit utilization rates. While presumably these data are collected at a frequent interval by insurance companies or third party administrators, these need to be made widely available to researchers and other policymakers. Without such data, the debate on the merits of RSBY cannot be addressed.
Second, there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the sustainability of the scheme in the medium and long term. A study by Dror and Vellakkal  estimated that it would cost the Central Government as much as ` 33.5 billion, or 0.3 per cent of India's union budget in 2010-2011, in insurance premiums for complete RSBY coverage (all BPL families). In comparison, the scheme was severely underfunded, with actual union budget allocations being only
` 3.15 billion in 2010-2011 and ` 4.6 billion in 2011-2012  . The enrolment under RSBY in 2010-2011 was estimated to cost ` 9.29 billion, and the budgeted resources could cover only about a third of it  . Furthermore, the budget allocation for RSBY may be even more inadequate when we consider the potential utilization patterns of the scheme. Since RSBY only covers the poor who are generally more vulnerable to most ailments, its utilization rates might be higher than other health insurance programmes that cover a wider population. The unfavourable risk pool (known as the adverse selection problem) may reduce the financial viability of RSBY. Therefore, along with increasing budgetary allocations, the risk pool should also be normalized by enrolling more non-BPL people.
Third, as with many government schemes, RSBY faces problems with system leakage, insurance frauds, and other inconsistencies. For example, there have been reports of fraudulent claims  or out of pocket medical expenditure by beneficiaries , . RSBY suffers from various structural shortcomings, preventing it from fully protecting the poor from health and financial shocks ,,, . It is well known that BPL lists, which form the main basis for eligibility into RSBY, also suffer from inaccuracies in many StatesStates  . Surveys of health care providers reveal problems related to poor functioning of the "paperless" mechanism of claims, inadequate reimbursement, and lack of training ,, . The additional cost of doing business is often passed onto the consumer, which can lead to higher OOP payments or unnecessary medical procedures  .
A systematic evaluation of RSBY would provide data on most of these systemic inefficiencies and a basis for targeted improvement. And ideal evaluation should also look beyond the regular questions asked by researchers, such as its impact on health care utilization and medical expenditure. Data should also be collected on softer measures of the success of the scheme, such as enrolment and hospitalization experience, trust in the programme, and perceived well-being.
| Conclusion|| |
RSBY is India's ambitious hospital insurance programme, but the evidence on its intended effects remains inconclusive. Further research is required before the programme's merit can be judged. For example, in the absence of natural experiment settings involving exogenous variations in RSBY implementation or coverage, future roll out of RSBY may be randomized in some regions, even if only on a small scale , . Alternatively, randomized studies of RSBY coverage can also be conducted among people who are near poverty but not officially on the BPL list and, therefore, not eligible for RSBY. This would allow researchers to answer important questions about the programme's true benefit, much of which is currently masked by the methodological problems in observational studies.
Rigorous impact evaluation of RSBY will not only capture the real impact of the scheme, but may also be able to estimate the extent of systemic inefficiencies at the level of the consumer. The microlevel evidence should be used to determine the future of the programme. Budget inconsistencies also need to be addressed, as a resource-starved programme may be beneficial in principle but not in practice. This is particularly important if RSBY plans to also cover outpatient treatment in future, as indicated by pilot studies in Odisha and Gujarat. The potential for RSBY or an RSBY-like scheme is enormous as the need to improve health outcomes and decrease financial shocks is great. At this point, knowing how to grow or alter the scheme so it can achieve these objectives is paramount.
| References|| |
Balarajan Y, Selvaraj S, Subramanian S V. Health care and equity in India. Lancet
Berman P, Ahuja R, Bhandari L. The impoverishing effect of healthcare payments in India: new methodology and findings. Econ Pol Wkly
Garg CC, Karan AK. Reducing out-of-pocket expenditures to reduce poverty: a disaggregated analysis at rural-urban and state level in India. Health Policy Plann
van Doorslaer E, O′Donnell O, Rannan-Eliya RP, Somanathan A, Adhikari SR, Garg CC, et al
. Effect of payments for health care on poverty estimates in 11 countries in Asia: an analysis of household survey data. Lancet
Bonu S, Bhushan I, Rani M, Anderson I. Incidence and correlates of "catastrophic" maternal health care expenditure in India. Health Policy Plann
Huffman MD, Rao KD, Pichon-Riviere A, Zhao O, Harikrishan S, Ramaiya K, et al
. A cross-sectional study of the microeconomic impact of cardiovascular disease hospitalization in four low- and middle-income countries. PLoS One
Bloom DE, Cafiero ET, McGovern ME, Prettner K, Stanciole A, Weiss J, et al
. The economic impact of non-communicable disease in China and India
: estimates, projections, and comparisons. Natl Bur Econ Res Working Paper No 19335, 2013. Available from: http://www.nber.org/papers/w19335
, accessed on October 8, 2015.
Government of India. RSBY official web portal. Available from: www.rsby.gov.in
, accessed on October 28, 2015.
Seshadri T, Trivedi M, Saxena D, Soors W, Criel B, Devadasan N. Impact of RSBY on enrolled households: lessons from Gujarat. BMC Proc
(Suppl 5) : O9.
Dilip TR. On publicly-financed health insurance schemes. Is the analysis premature? Econ Pol Wkly
Palacios R, Hou X. Hospitalization patterns in RSBY : preliminary evidence from the MIS. In: Palacios R, Das J, Sun C, editors. India′s health insurance scheme for the poor: evidence from the early experience of the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana
. RSBY. New Delhi: Centre for Policy Research; 2011. p. 1-30.
Selvaraj S, Karan AK. Why publicly-financed health insurance schemes are ineffective in providing financial risk protection. Econ Pol Wkly
Selvaraj S. Publicly-financed health insurance schemes: ignorance is not bliss. Econ Pot Wkly
Vellakkal S, Ebrahim S. Publicly-financed health insurance schemes: concerns about impact assessment. Econ Pol Wkly
Dror DM, Vellakkal S. Is RSBY India′s platform to implementing universal hospital insurance? Indian J Med Res
Bang A, Chatterjee M, Dasgupta J, Garg A, Jain Y, Reddy KS, et al
. High level expert group report on universal health coverage for India
. New Delhi : Planning Commission of India; 2011; Available from: http://planning commission.nic.in/reports/genrep/rep_uhc0812.pdf
, accessed on October 28, 2015.
Nandi A, Ashok A, Laxminarayan R. The socioeconomic and institutional determinants of participation in India′s health insurance scheme for the poor. PLoS One
ICICI. Foundation. Pilot project introducing outpatient healthcare on the RSBY card - a case study
.Chennai, India: ICICI Foundation for Inclusive Growth; 2012.
Wagstaff A, Pradhan M. Health insurance impacts on health and nonmedical consumption in a developing country. ICFAI J Risk Insur
Bogg L, Hengjin D, Keli W, Wenwei C, Diwan V. The cost of coverage: rural health insurance in China. Health Policy Plann
Jütting JP. Do community-based health insurance schemes improve poor people′s access to health care? Evidence from rural Senegal. World Dev
Criel B, Van der Stuyft P, Van Lerberghe W. The Bwamanda hospital insurance scheme: effective for whom? A study of its impact on hospital utilization patterns1. Soc Sci Med
Baeza C, Montenegro F, Núñez M. Extending social protection in health through community based health organizations: evidence and challenges
. Geneva: Universitas Programme, International Labour Organization/ Strategis and Tools against Social Exclusion Poverty (STEP); 2002.
Ruiz F, Amaya L, Venegas S. Progressive segmented health insurance: Colombian health reform and access to health services. Health Econ
Trujillo AJ, Portillo JE, Vernon JA. The impact of subsidized health insurance for the poor: evaluating the Colombian experience using propensity score matching. Int J Health Care Finance Econ
Ekman B. Catastrophic health payments and health insurance: some counterintuitive evidence from one low-income country. Health Policy
Wagstaff A, Lindelow M. Can insurance increase financial risk?: The curious case of health insurance in China. J Health Econ
Kruk ME, Goldmann E, Galea S. Borrowing and selling to pay for health care in low-and middle-income countries. Health Aff (Millwood)
Rao KD, Bhatnagar A, Murphy A. Socio-economic inequalities in the financing of cardiovascular & diabetes inpatient treatment in India. Indian J Med Res
Binnendijk E, Koren R, Dror DM. Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India. BMC Health Serv Res
Karan A, Engelgau M, Mahal A. The household-level economic burden of heart disease in India. Trop Med Int Health
Prinja S, Kanavos P, Kumar R. Health care inequities in north India: role of public sector in universalizing health care. Indian J Med Res
Bhojani U, Thriveni B, Devadasan R, Munegowda C, Devadasan N, Kolsteren P, et al
. Out-of-pocket healthcare payments on chronic conditions impoverish urban poor in Bangalore, India. BMC Public Health
Gertler P, Gruber J. Insuring consumption against illness. Am Econ Rev
Wagstaff A. The economic consequences of health shocks: evidence from Vietnam. J Health Econ
Duflo A. Health shocks and economic vulnerability in rural India: break the vicious circle. Center for Micro Finance Research Working Paper
. 2006; (September): 1-53. Available from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTSARREGTOPLABSOCPRO/34004324- 1145382108227/20892502/HealthShocksAndEconomicVulnerability.pdf
, accessed on o0 ctober 8, 2015.
Gertler P, Levine D I, Moretti E. Do microfinance programs help families insure consumption against illness? Health Econ
Finkelstein A, McKnight R. What did medicare do? The initial impact of Medicare on mortality and out of pocket medical spending. J Public Econ
Cutler DM, Reber SJ. Paying for health insurance: the trade-off between competition and adverse selection. Q J Econ
Ellis R. Employee choice of health insurance. Rev Econ Stat
Cameron AC, Trivedi PK. The role of income and health risk in the choice of health insurance: evidence from Australia. J Public Econ
Doyle JJ. Health insurance, treatment and outcomes: using auto accidents as health shocks. Rev Econ Stat
Carlson MJ, DeVoe J, Wright BJ. Short-term impacts of coverage loss in a Medicaid population: early results from a prospective cohort study of the Oregon Health Plan. Ann Fam Med
Aggarwal A. Impact evaluation of India′s "Yeshasvini" community-based health insurance programme. Health Econ
Jowett M, Contoyannis P, Vinh ND. The impact of public voluntary health insurance on private health expenditures in Vietnam. Soc Sci Med
Wagstaff A. Measuring financial protection in health
. Policy Research Working Paper 4554. Washington DC: World Bank; 2008. p. 1-34.
Gruber J, Hendren N, Townsend RM. The great equalizer: health care access and infant mortality in Thailand. Am Econ J Appl Econ
Rubin DB. For objective causal inference, design trumps analysis. Ann Appl Stat
Newhouse JP, The Insurance Experiment Group. Free for all? Lessons from the RAND health insurance experiment
. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press; 1993.
King G, Gakidou E, Imai K, Lakin J, Moore RT, Nall C, et al
. Public policy for the poor? A randomised assessment of the Mexican universal health insurance programme. Lancet
King G, Gakidou E, Ravishankar N, Moore RT, Lakin J, Vargas M, et al
. A "politically robust" experimental design for public policy evaluation, with application to the Mexican universal health insurance program. J Policy Anal Manag
Finkelstein A, Taubman S, Wright B, Bernstein M, Gruber J, Newhouse JP, et al
. The oregon health insurance experiment: evidence from the first year. Q J Econ
Baicker K, Taubman SL, Allen HL, Bernstein M, Gruber JH, Newhouse JP, et al
. The Oregon experiment--effects of Medicaid on clinical outcomes. N Engl J Med
Thornton RL, Hatt LE, Field EM, Islam M, Diaz FS, González MA. Social security health insurance for the informal sector in Nicaragua: a randomized evaluation. Health Econ
Credit with Health Insurance: Evidence from the Philippines. Available from: www.povertyactionlab.org/evaluation/credit-health-insurance-evidence-philippines
, accessed on October 8, 2015.
Rothwell PM. External validity of randomised controlled trials: "to whom do the results of this trial apply? Lancet
Deaton AS. Instruments, randomization, and learning about development. J Econ Lit
Eble A, Boone P, Elbourne D. On minimizing the risk of bias in randomized controlled trials in economics. 2014:1-48. Available from: http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2272141
, accessed on October 8, 2015.
Edwards SJ, Braunholtz DA, Lilford RJ, Stevens AJ. Ethical issues in the design and conduct of cluster randomised controlled trials. BMJ
Edwards SJ, Lilford RJ, Hewison J. The ethics of randomised controlled trials from the perspectives of patients, the public, and healthcare professionals. BMJ
Rathi P, Mukherji A, Sen G. Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana
: evaluating utilisation, roll-out and perceptions in Amaravati district, Maharashtra. Econ Pol Wkly
Banerjee AV, Duflo E. The experimental approach to development economics. Annu Rev Econ
Das J, Leino J. Evaluating the RSBY: lessons from an experimental information campaign. Econ Pol Wkly
Devadasan N, Seshadri T, Trivedi M, Criel B. Promoting universal financial protection: evidence from the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) in Gujarat, India. Health Res Policy Syst
Fan VY, Karan A, Mahal A. State health insurance and out-of-pocket health expenditures in Andhra Pradesh, India. Int J Health Care Finance Econ
Rao M, Katyal A, Singh P V, Samarth A, Bergkvist S, Kancharla M, et al
. Changes in addressing inequalities in access to hospital care in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra states of India: a difference-in-differences study using repeated cross-sectional surveys. BMJ Open
Doyle C, Panda P, Van de Poel E, Radermacher R, Dror DM. Reconciling research and implementation in micro health insurance experiments in India: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials
Panda P, Chakraborty A, Dror DM, Bedi AS. Enrolment in community-based health insurance schemes in rural Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India. Health Policy Plann
La Forgia G, Nagpal S. Government-sponsored health insurance in India: are you covered?
New Delhi: World Bank; 2012.
Rajasekhar D, Berg E, Ghatak M, Manjula R, Roy S. Implementing health insurance: the rollout of Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana
in Karnataka. Econ Pol Wkly
Ram F, Mohanty SK, Ram U. Understanding the distribution of BPL cards: all-India and selected states. Econ Pol Wkly
Trivedi M, Saxena DB. Third angle of RSBY: service providers′ perspective to RSBY-operational Issues in Gujarat. J Family Med Prim Care
Desai S, Sinha T, Mahal A. Prevalence of hysterectomy among rural and urban women with and without health insurance in Gujarat, India. Reprod Health Matters
|This article has been cited by|
||Whether the industrial workers of slums have access to job insurance?
| ||Shashwati Banerjee,Kishor Goswami |
| ||International Journal of Workplace Health Management. 2019; 12(3): 102 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Aligning public financial management system and free healthcare policies: lessons from a free maternal and child healthcare programme in Nigeria
| ||Daniel Chukwuemeka Ogbuabor,Obinna Emmanuel Onwujekwe |
| ||Health Economics Review. 2019; 9(1) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Role of insurance in determining utilization of healthcare and financial risk protection in India
| ||Shankar Prinja,Pankaj Bahuguna,Indrani Gupta,Samik Chowdhury,Mayur Trivedi,Sandra C. Buttigieg |
| ||PLOS ONE. 2019; 14(2): e0211793 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Scaling-up strategic purchasing: analysis of health system governance imperatives for strategic purchasing in a free maternal and child healthcare programme in Enugu State, Nigeria
| ||Daniel Chukwuemeka Ogbuabor,Obinna Emmanuel Onwujekwe |
| ||BMC Health Services Research. 2018; 18(1) |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Institutionalising health technology assessment: establishing the Medical Technology Assessment Board in India
| ||Laura E Downey,Abha Mehndiratta,Ashoo Grover,Vijay Gauba,Kabir Sheikh,Shankar Prinja,Ravinder Singh,Francoise A Cluzeau,Saudamini Dabak,Yot Teerawattananon,Sanjiv Kumar,Soumya Swaminathan |
| ||BMJ Global Health. 2017; 2(2): e000259 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Extending health insurance to the poor in India: An impact evaluation of Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana on out of pocket spending for healthcare
| ||Anup Karan,Winnie Yip,Ajay Mahal |
| ||Social Science & Medicine. 2017; 181: 83 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|