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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 142  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 113-119

Oxidative stress, thyroid dysfunction & Down syndrome


Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, Centre for Biological Research - Spanish National Research Council (CIB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain

Correspondence Address:
┴ngela Casado
Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, Centre for Biological Research, CSIC. C/ Ramiro de Maeztu, 9. E-28040 Madrid
Spain
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.164218

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Down syndrome (DS) is one of the most common chromosomal disorders, occurring in one out of 700-1000 live births, and the most common cause of mental retardation. Thyroid dysfunction is the most typical endocrine abnormality in patients with DS. It is well known that thyroid dysfunction is highly prevalent in children and adults with DS and that both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are more common in patients with DS than in the general population. Increasing evidence has shown that DS individuals are under unusual increased oxidative stress, which may be involved in the higher prevalence and severity of a number of pathologies associated with the syndrome, as well as the accelerated ageing observed in these individuals. The gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is coded on chromosome 21 and it is overexpressed (~50%) resulting in an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). ROS leads to oxidative damage of DNA, proteins and lipids, therefore, oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of DS.


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