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CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 140  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 438-440

Mosquito larvicidal properties of Mirabilis jalapa (Nyctaginaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti & Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)


Unit of Vector Biology & Phytochemistry Department of Zoology, Annamalai University Annamalainagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Web Publication1-Nov-2014

Correspondence Address:
M Govindarajan
Unit of Vector Biology & Phytochemistry Department of Zoology, Annamalai University Annamalainagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 25366214

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How to cite this article:
Govindarajan M, Ramya A, Sivakumar R. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Mirabilis jalapa (Nyctaginaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti & Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) . Indian J Med Res 2014;140:438-40

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Govindarajan M, Ramya A, Sivakumar R. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Mirabilis jalapa (Nyctaginaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti & Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) . Indian J Med Res [serial online] 2014 [cited 2018 Aug 19];140:438-40. Available from: http://www.ijmr.org.in/text.asp?2014/140/3/438/143797

Sir,

Mosquitoes are the most important single group of insects known for their public importance, since they act as vector for many tropical and subtropical diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya, malaria, filariasis and encephalitis of different types including, Japanese encephalitis [1] . Larviciding is a successful way of reducing mosquito densities in their breeding places before they emerge into adults. Larviciding largely depends on the use of synthetic chemical insecticides - organophosphates (e.g. temephos and fenthion), insect growth regulators (e.g. diflubenzuron and methoprene), etc. Although effective, their repeated use has disrupted natural biological control systems and sometimes resulting in the widespread development of resistance. These problems have warranted the need for developing alternative strategies using eco-friendly products [2] . We undertook investigations of certain plant species traditionally used as insecticidal agents, as well as other endangered plant species, with the aim of identifying lead compounds for the development of new plant based insecticidal agents [3].

Mirabilis jalapa Linn (Nyctaginaceae) is a perennial herb and is known as "Gulambasa" in Ayurveda. The presence of oxymethyl anthraquinone, trigonelline, arabinose, galactose, beta-sitosterol in leaves has been reported. It is used in the traditional system of medicine in the treatment of piles, abscess, boils and ulcers [4],[5] . There is no information available on the larvicidal activity of M. jalapa against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the larvicidal efficacy of M.jalapa leaves extract against malaria, dengue and filariasis vector mosquitoes.

The leaves of M.jalapa were collected from in and around Gingee, Tamil Nadu, India, and were authenticated by a plant taxonomist from the Department of Botany, Annamalai University. A voucher specimen was deposited at the herbarium of Plant Phytochemistry Division, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India.

Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi were reared in the Vector Control Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University. The larvae were fed on dog biscuits and yeast powder in the 3:1 ratio. Adults were provided with 10 per cent sucrose solution and membrane feeding on goat blood. Mosquitoes were held at 28 ± 2°C, 70-85 per cent relative humidity (RH), with a photoperiod of 12 h light : 12 h dark. The dried leaves (1 kg) were extracted with four different solvents, namely, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol (500ml), individually and the extract was evaporated in a rotary vacuum evaporator. Standard stock solutions were prepared at 1 per cent by dissolving the residues in ethanol, which was used for the larvicidal bioassay.

The larvicidal activity of the plant crude extracts was evaluated as per the method recommended by the World Health Organization [6] . Batches of 25 third instar larvae were transferred to a small disposable paper cups, each containing 200 ml of water. The appropriate volume of dilution was added to 200 ml water in the cups to obtain the desired target dosage, starting with the lowest concentration (25-250 mg/l). Four replicates were set up for each concentration, and an equal number of controls were set up simultaneously using tap water. To this, 1 ml of ethanol was added. The LC 50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 per cent of the exposed larvae) and LC 90 (lethal concentration that kills 90 per cent of the exposed larvae) values were calculated after 24 h by probit analysis [7]

The results of the larvicidal activity of crude benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent leaf extracts of M. jalapa against the larvae of three important vector mosquitoes, viz. An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus are presented in the Table. Among extracts tested, the highest larvicidal activity was observed in leaf methanol extract of M. jalapa against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC 50 and LC 90 values as 57.55, 64.58, 84.53 ppm and 104.20, 120.28, 159.25 ppm, respectively [Table 1]. Regression analysis showed that the mortality rate (Y) was positively correlated with concentration of exposure (X). The result of log probit analysis (95% confidence level) showed that LC 50 values gradually decreased (benzene < chloroform < ethyl acetate < methanol).
Table 1: Larvicidal activity of different solvent leaf extract of M. jalapa against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus


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It is a well recognized fact that plant extracts and phytochemicals could be developed into products suitable for mosquito control, because many of these are selective, often biodegradable to non-toxic products, and may be applied to mosquito breeding sites in the same way as conventional insecticides. Our result showed that the crude benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts of leaf of M. jalapa had significant larvicidal properties against three vector mosquitos viz. An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. This result was also comparable to our earlier reports of the LC 50 values of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and chloroform extract of Eclipta alba against early third-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti which were 151.38, 165.10, 154.88, 127.64, and 146.28 ppm, respectively [8] , and for the larvicidal efficacy of benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and chloroform leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the LC 50 values were 174.24, 193.31, 183.36, 150.44, and 154.95 and 182.51, 200.02, 192.31, 156.80, and 164.54 ppm, respectively [9] . The leaf oil extracts of Eucalyptus tereticornis showed 100 per cent mortality at 160 ppm against the larvae of An. stephensi[10] . The acetone extracts of Nerium indicum and Thuja orientelis have been studied with LC 50 values of 200.87 and 127.53 ppm against III instar larvae of An. stephensi[11] . The isolated compound neemarin from Azadirachta indica exhibited LC 50 and LC90 values of 0.35 and 1.81 mg/l for An. stephensi [12] . Compared with earlier reports, our results revealed that the experimental plant extracts were effective against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus and the plant M. jalapa exhibited larvicidal activity against three important vector mosquitoes. These results could encourage the search for new active natural compounds offering an alternative to synthetic insecticides from other medicinal plants.

 
   References Top

1.Management of vectors. In: Youdeowei A, Service MW, editors. Pest and vector management in Tropics. London: English Language Book Society; 1983; p. 265-80.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Tiwary M, Naik SN, Tewary DK, Mittal PK, Yadav S. Chemical composition and larvicidal activites of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum armatum DC (Rutaceae) against three mosquito vectors. J Vector Borne Dis 2007; 44: 198-204.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Govindarajan M, Sivakumar R, Rajeswary M, Yogalakshmi K. Adulticidal activity of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012; 2 : 124-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Yang SW, Ubillas R, Mc Alpine J, Stafford A, Ecker DM, Talbot MK, et al. Three new phenolic compounds from a manipulated plant cell culture of Mirabilis jalapa. J Nat Prod 2001; 64 : 313-7.   Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Dimayuga RE, Virgen M, Ochoa N. Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants from Baja California Sur (Mexico). Pharm Biol 1998; 36: 33-43.   Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides. Communicable Disease Control, p0 revention and e0 radication, WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme. Geneva: WHO; 2005. WHO/CDS/WHOPES/GCDPP/2005.13.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Finney DJ. Probit analysis. London: Cambridge University Press; 1971. p. 68-72.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Govindarajan M, Karuppannan P. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal properties of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (Asteraceae) against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011; 4 : 24-8.   Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Govindarajan M. Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. (family: Sapindaceae) leaf extract against Culex quinquefasciatus ( s0 ay.) and Aedes aegypti (Linn.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2011; 15 : 787-94.   Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Nathan SS. The use of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. (Myrtaceae) oil (leaf extract) as a natural larvicidal agent against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Bioresour Technol 2007; 98 : 1856-60.   Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Sharma P, Mohan L, Srivastava CN. Larvicidal potential of Nerium indicum and Thuja oriertelis extracts against malaria and Japanese encephalitis vector. J Environ Biol 2005; 26 : 657-60.   Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Vatandoost H, Vaziri VM. Larvicidal activity of a neem tree extract (Neemarin) against mosquito larvae in the Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J 2004; 10 : 573- 81.  Back to cited text no. 12
    



 
 
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