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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 140  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 356-360

Clinical & immunological profile of newly diagnosed patients with youth onset diabetes mellitus


1 Department of Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India
2 Endocrinologist, Hormone Care & Research Center, Ghaziabad, India

Correspondence Address:
D K Dhanwal
Director Professor of Medicine & Endocrinologist, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi 110 002
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 25366202

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Background & objectives: There has been a rise in the incidence of diabetes mellitus in the younger population of India. There are limited data available on the immunological profile of youth onset diabetes mellitus (DM) especially in type 2. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical and immunological profile of youth onset DM in north India. Methods: Fifty one consecutive patients of 8-35 yr of age with diabetes mellitus attending the Lok Nayak Hospital, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, and Hormone Care and Research Center at Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, were included in the study. All subjects were tested for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), an islet cell antigen ICA512/IA2, and insulin antibodies. GAD and ICA512/IA2 were done by ELISA and insulin autoantibodies were tested by radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. These patients were also screened for hepatitis A to E, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as trigger factors for onset of type 1 DM. Results: o0 f the total 51 patients, 38 were men and 13 were women. The mean age and BMI of the subjects was 19.7 (±7) years and 21 (± 5) kg/m [2] , respectively. Twenty patients were below the age of 18 yr and their height was more than 75 th percentile of Indian standards. All patients were symptomatic and 12 of these presented with ketoacidosis. Only 48 per cent (n=24) were positive for GAD, 14 per cent (n=7) for ICA512/IA-2, and 28% (n=14) were positive for insulin antibody. Five of these patients had evidence of hepatitis E virus infection. None of the subjects had evidence of active CMV or EBV infection. Interpretation & conclusions: About half of the youth onset diabetes mellitus patients from north India had presence of pancreatic autoimmunity in the form of GAD, ICA512/IA2, and insulin antibodies or a combination of antibodies suggestive of having type 1 DM. Further studies need to be done on a large sample size in different parts of the country


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