Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 136  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 571-584

Oncolytic viruses & their specific targeting to tumour cells


Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (ICAR), Bareilly, India

Correspondence Address:
Ashok K Tiwari
Principal Scientist, Molecular Biology Lab, Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 23168697

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Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. In spite of achieving significant successes in medical sciences in the past few decades, the number of deaths due to cancer remains unchecked. The conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy have limited therapeutic index and a plethora of treatment related side effects. This situation has provided an impetus for search of novel therapeutic strategies that can selectively destroy the tumour cells, leaving the normal cells unharmed. Viral oncotherapy is such a promising treatment modality that offers unique opportunity for tumour targeting. Numerous viruses with inherent anti-cancer activity have been identified and are in different phases of clinical trials. In the era of modern biotechnology and with better understanding of cancer biology and virology, it has become feasible to engineer the oncolytic viruses (OVs) to increase their tumour selectivity and enhance their oncolytic activity. In this review, the mechanisms by which oncolytic viruses kill the tumour cells have been discussed as also the development made in virotherapy for cancer treatment with emphasis on their tumour specific targeting.


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