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CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 135  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 435-436

Dermacentor auratus Supino, 1897 (Acarina, Ixodidae) reported from Wayanad, Kerala


1 Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Pookode, Wayanad 673 576; Division of Parasitology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, India
2 Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Pookode, Wayanad 673 576, India

Date of Web Publication3-May-2012

Correspondence Address:
K G Ajithkumar
Department of Veterinary Parasitology, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Pookode, Wayanad 673 576; Division of Parasitology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122
India
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How to cite this article:
Ajithkumar K G, Ravindran R, Ghosh S. Dermacentor auratus Supino, 1897 (Acarina, Ixodidae) reported from Wayanad, Kerala. Indian J Med Res 2012;135:435-6

How to cite this URL:
Ajithkumar K G, Ravindran R, Ghosh S. Dermacentor auratus Supino, 1897 (Acarina, Ixodidae) reported from Wayanad, Kerala. Indian J Med Res [serial online] 2012 [cited 2019 Dec 8];135:435-6. Available from: http://www.ijmr.org.in/text.asp?2012/135/3/435/95637

Sir,

The species of ixodid ticks reported from Kerala include, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, R. (B.) microplus, R. (B.) decoloratus, R. sanguineus, R. haemaphysaloides, R. turanicus, Haemaphysalis bispinosa, H. intermedia, H. aculeata, H. cuspidata, H. knobigera, H. turturis, H. spinigera, Hyalomma anatolicum, H. marginatum isaaci, H. hussaini, Amblyomma integrum, Nosomma monstrosum, N. keralensis[1],[2]. The available literature does not show the report of any species of Dermacentor from Kerala. Various species of Dermacentor are recognized as vectors and reservoirs of bacilli, piroplasms, theilerias, viruses and reckettsiae [3] . This communication focuses on the identification of an adult male Dermacentor auratus from a man native of Wayanad district of Kerala, India.

A male labourer working at College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pookot, Wayanad, Kerala, reported on February 20, 2009 about an attachment of tick on his leg while he was returning from his home through the college campus, which shares its boundary with the reserve forest. Bite had occurred only a few minutes back so the tick could be removed gently without damaging the mouth parts. The specimen was observed under a stereozoom microscope (Labomed, India) for species identification [3],[4],[5] and photographed.

The removed single tick was identified as male D. auratus Supino, 1897 (Acarina, Ixodidae). Size of the tick was 7mm (length from capitulum to middle festoon) x 5mm (maximum breadth at its mid length). Scutum, capitulum and legs were highly ornate. Hypostome was short, spatulate, with a dentition of 3/3. A pair of eyes was present at the level of second coxae. More or less raised brown base colour markings characteristic of D. auratus were present on the dorsal scutum [Figure 1]a. Large punctuation interspersed by minute ones was noticed on the dorsal aspect of scutum while these were not observed on the brown raised areas. Festoons contained 11 bulges. On the ventral side, coxae increased in size from I to IV [Figure 1]b, which is also a typical characteristic of Dermacentor spp. Palps were longer than basis capitulum, spiracular plates were ovate with a short narrow tail; external and internal spurs of coxa I were well separated.
Figure 1 (a): Dorsal view of male D. auratus (40X). (b) Ventral view of male D. auratus (40X).

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There are 30 species of Dermacentor reported from all over the world, of which only three viz., D. atrosignatus, D. auratus, D. raskemensis occur in India. D. auratus has been recorded from hosts like man, cattle, deer, buffalo, wild boar and small mammals in different States of the country like Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Orissa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal [6],[7],[8] [Figure 2]. The present report is perhaps the first record of bite of a human being by an adult male D. auratus from Kerala.
Figure 2: Distribution of D. auratus and Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) in India [Source: Refs 6-8 and present report].

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D. auratus has already been reported to carry many recketsiae and viruses. Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, a genotype of Anaplasma platys and Rickettsia sp. strain RDla420 were detected from these ticks collected from dogs and bear respectively [9] . D. auratus was also identified to carry Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) virus [10] which causes a fatal zoonotic viral disease reported from KFD region of Karnataka.

Wild pigs, deer, and possibly the python are reported to be the host for adults [11] . Bite of a nymphal stage of D. auratus on the upper eyelid of a man has been previously reported from Kolkata [12] . Man is frequently infected by nymphs of these ticks. But in the present case, the bite was due to an adult tick on man. Spread of this tick might have occurred from D. auratus prevalent Kyasanur forest and surrounding area of Karnataka State to the neighboring district Wayanad of Kerala due to migration of wildlife or transportation of livestock.


   Acknowledgment Top


Authors acknowledge the financial support received from the Indian Council of Agricultural Research through World Bank funded National Agricultural Innovation Project No. C2066.

 
   References Top

1.Rajamohanan K. Studies on the common ticks affecting livestock in Kerala. Ph.D. thesis, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur; 1980.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Prakasan K, Ramani N. Tick parasites of domestic animals of Kerala, South India. Asian J Anim Vet Adv 2007; 2 : 74-80.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Arthur DC. Ticks: A monograph of the Ixodoidea. Part V. On the genera Dermancentor, Anocenoer, Cosmiomma, Boophilus & Margaropus. Cambridge: University Press; 1960.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Bhat HR, Jacob PG, Sreenivasan MA. Life history of Dermacentor auratus Supino, 1897 (Acarina, Ixodidae). Indian J Med Res 1974; 62 : 1871-80.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Wassef HY, Hoogstraal H. Dermacentor (Indocentor) auratus (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae): identity of male and female. J Med Entomol 1984; 21 : 169-73.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Miranpuri GS, Gill HS. Ticks of India. Edinburgh: Lindsay & Macleod; 1983.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Geevarghese G, Fernandes S, Kulkarni SM. A checklist of Indian ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea). Indian J Anim Sci 1997; 67 : 566-74.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Ghosh S, Bansal GC, Gupta SC, Ray D, Khan MQ, Irshad H, et al. Status of tick distribution in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Parasitol Res 2007; 101 (Suppl 2) : S207-16.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Parola P, Cornet JP, Sanogo YO, Miller RS, Thien HV, Gonzalez JP, et al. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the Thai-Myanmar border and Vietnam. J Clin Microbiol 2003; 41 : 1600-8.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Service MW, Ashford RW. The encyclopedia of arthropod-transmitted infections. Oxfordshire, UK: CABI Publishing; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Hoogstraal H, Wassef HY. Dermacentor (Indocentor) auratus (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae): hosts, distribution, and medical importance in tropical Asia. J Med Entomol 1985; 22 : 170-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Kirwan EO. A tick on the upper eye-lid (Dermacentor auratus nymph). Br J Ophthalmol 1935; 19 : 659-61.  Back to cited text no. 12
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]



 

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