Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 135  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 365-370

Antimicrobial resistance in Shigella - rapid increase & widening of spectrum in Andaman Islands, India

1 Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Port Blair, India
2 School of Biotechnology, Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, VIT University, Vellore, India
3 Chirayu Child Care Centre, Port Blair, India
4 G.B. Pant Hospital, Port Blair, India

Correspondence Address:
Subarna Roy
Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Post Bag No.13, Port Blair 744101, Andaman & Nicobar Islands
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Background & objectives: Shigellosis is known to be a major cause of acute childhood diarrhoea in Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India. Rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance warrants continuous monitoring of sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates. We report here the salient findings of an ongoing study on shigellosis in Andaman Islands, India, with regards to change in drug resistance pattern during the past one decade. Method: During 2006-2009, stools samples from 412 paediatric diarrhoea patients were collected and processed for isolation and identification of Shigella spp. Susceptibility to 22 antimicrobial drugs was tested and MICs were determined for 3 rd generation cephalosporins, quinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combination and gentamicin. Drug susceptibility pattern of these isolates were compared with that of 33 isolates obtained during 2000-2002. Results: Shigella isolates were recovered from 50 of 412 stool samples processed. Resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin was observed in 100, 96, 94 and 82 per cent of the isolates, respectively. The frequency of resistance to these drugs was significantly (P<0.001) higher than that observed during 2000-2002. Resistance to seven drugs was observed in 2000-2002, whereas resistance to 21 drugs was seen during 2006-2009. The number of drug resistance pattern increased from 13 in 2000-2002 to 43 in 2006-2009. Resistance to newer generation fluoroquinolones, 3 rd generation cephalosporins and augmentin, which was not observed during 2000-2002, appeared during 2006-2009. Interpretation & Conclusions: The frequency of resistance among Shigella isolates has increased substantially between 2000-2002 and 2006-2009 and the spectrum of resistance has widened. At present, the option for antimicrobial therapy in shigellosis in Andaman is limited to a small number of drugs. Continuous local monitoring of resistance patterns is necessary for the appropriate selection of empirical antimicrobial therapy.

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