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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 130  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 655-665

Modulation of macronutrient metabolism in the offspring by maternal micronutrient deficiency in experimental animals


Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India

Correspondence Address:
M Raghunath
Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 20090123

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Epidemiological evidence indicates that poor early growth is associated with increased susceptibility to visceral obesity, insulin resistance and associated diseases in adulthood. Studies in experimental animals have demonstrated a robust association between nutrient imbalance during foetal life and disease prevalence in their later life specially of those involving macronutrient metabolism. There is very little data on the role of maternal micronutrient deficiencies widely prevalent in India. This review focuses on different animal models of micronutrient restriction, mimicking human situations during pregnancy and lactation that cause aberrations in macronutrient metabolism in the offspring. These aberrations consist of altered body composition, dyslipidaemia and altered insulin sensitivity associated with modulated insulin production. These phenotypic changes were associated with altered lipid profile, fatty acid synthesis / transport, oxidative stress, glucose tolerance / tissue uptake. Further, these were also associated with altered myogenesis and insulin expression and secretion from pancreatic beta-islets. While these changes during in utero or early postnatal life serve as essential adaptations to overcome adverse conditions, these become maladaptive subsequently and set the stage for obesity and type 2 diabetes.


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