Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 130  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 341-347

Human papillomavirus vaccines : current issues & future


Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Correspondence Address:
K Kawana
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 19901444

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Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in worldwide. Some 99 per cent of cervical cancer cases are linked to genital infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) comprised of approximately 15 oncogenic genital HPV types. Most HPV infections resolve spontaneously. But, the remainder persist and may then progress to cervical cancer in some women. In high-resource countries, the best way to prevent cervical cancer is to implement organised gynaecological screening programs with appropriate treatment of the detected pre-cancerous lesions. However, in developing countries, this method is not practicable because of cost and complexity of proper screening. Vaccines against HPV infections hold promise to reduce incidence of cervical cancer cost-effectively. Two Prophylactic HPV vaccines have been thus far developed: Gardasil(R), a quadrivalent vaccine targeting HPV-6, -11, -16 and -18) and Cervarix(R), a bivalent vaccine which targets HPV-16 and -18. Both vaccines contain L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from HPV-16 and -18 which are most frequently associated with cervical cancer. The L1-VLP vaccines are HPV type-specific and therefore can effectively prevent infection of a HPV type in question alone. Therefore, the L1-VLP vaccines are hoped to be multivalent for 15 oncogenic HPV types, which comes at a price. Otherwise, costly cytologic screening for cervical cancer is still necessary. The current HPV vaccines thus may not be ultimate strategy and study on new HPV vaccines is needed. Broad-spectrum prophylactic vaccines against all oncogenic HPV types and therapeutic vaccines for clearance of HPV-related cervical lesion are being developed.


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