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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2006  |  Volume : 124  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 261-268

Effect of tobacco smoking on renal function


Physiology Division, Department of Nursing and Women's Health, University of Central England, Birmingham, UK

Correspondence Address:
Ross G Cooper
Physiology Division, Department of Nursing and Women's Health, University of Central England, Birmingham, UK

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 17085829

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Nicotine is one of many substances that may be acquired through active and passive smoking of tobacco. In man, nicotine is commonly consumed via smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes. The addictive liability and pharmacological effects of smoking are primarily mediated by the major tobacco alkaloid nicotine. High stress jobs favour repeated smoking and further reinforce addictive behaviours. There are elevated serum cadmium and lead levels in smokers resulting in glomerular dysfunction. Nephropathies are accelerated by nicotine with an increased incidence of microalbuminuria progressing to proteinuria, followed by type-1 diabetes mellitus induced renal failure. Cigarette smoke-induced renal damage is due, at least in part, to activation of the sympathetic nervous system resulting in an elevation in blood pressure. Ethanol, nicotine, or concurrent intake significantly increases lipid peroxidation in liver, and decreased superoxide dismutase activity and increased catalase activity in the kidney. This review describes the effects of nicotine, smoking, smoke extracts and other tobacco constituents on renal and cardiovascular functions, and associated effects on the nervous system. Both active and passive smoking is toxic to renal function.


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